Grappa is made from distilling pomace (grape skins) left over from the winemaking process.
The topography of a hill provides ideal growing conditions for wine grapes. The altitude of a hill can protect grapes against sudden frosts which occur in a valley, and which could kill an entire crop. Also, the slope provides for good drainage of both air and water down the hill, and prevents excess moisture from accumulating as in the valley below. In the northern hemisphere, southward-facing hills receive maximum light and warmth. For this reason, most vineyards are located on the south end of a hill.
Several Oregon wineries have planted test vineyards in valley floors, and time will tell how these locales compare to their hilly counterparts.
Grapes cost a lot to grow, harvest, ferment, mature, bottle, and sell. Some grapes cost more than others. A reasonable market value for the wine is determined by the local industry.
There are plenty of excellent, affordable wines produced in this state ranging between $10 and $20 per bottle. If you want to pay more, you can: some pure varietal wines sell at $50+ per bottle. While these wines really are spectacular, the price gap may be too high for the casual drinker to taste any difference in quality.
In the end, each wine drinker should decide for themselves what wines appeal to them most, and at what price are they willing to enjoy that appeal.
A wine’s vintage is the year the grapes were harvested. For example, grapes for a 2000 Pinot Noir were harvested in the fall of that year, fermented, and placed into oak barrels for aging. While the wine may have been bottled and sold well into 2001 or 2002, the label on the bottle will reflect a vintage of 2000. If an industry’s wines have had a “good vintage” year, it means that overall, conditions were ideal for growing grapes, and as a result, the wines should also be very good.
A vintage also serves a much more fundamental purpose: it gives the consumer an idea of how old the wine is, and can help in making decisions about purchasing, storing, caring for, and serving the wine.
The American Heritage Dictionary explains that “enology” (also spelled oenology) is “the study of wine and the making of wine; viticulture.” From the Greek word “oinos” meaning wine.
Wine is the fermented juice of fruit or berries. With regards to grapes, a wine may consist of a single type of grape, or may contain a blend of different grapes. It may also have contain additional fruits, alcohols, and other additives. Through different production processes and grapes, come many types of wine.
We’ve compiled the following chart of frequently used wine terms in several major foreign languages. When reading foreign literature on wines, you may find the following chart a handy tool for deciphering unfamiliar vocabulary.
|appellation (noun)||une appellation||une denominación||una denominazione||die Bezeichnung|
|aroma, odor (noun)||un arôme, une odeur||un aroma||un aroma||der Duft|
|barrel, cask (noun)||un tonneau, une barrique||un tonel, una barrica||un barile, una botte||die Tonne, das Weinfaß|
|blush wine (noun)||un rosé||un vino rosado||un vino rosato||der Roséwein, der Schillerwein|
|bottle (noun)||une bouteille||una botella||una bottiglia||die Weinflasche|
|bottle (verb)||mettre (mise) en bouteille||embotellar||imbottigliare||auf Flaschen ziehen|
|cork (noun)||un bouchon||un tapón, un corcho||un tappo||der Kork|
|cork (verb)||boucher||taponar, poner el corcho a||tappare||korken|
|corkscrew (noun)||un tire-bouchon||un sacacorchos||un cavatappi||der Korkzieher|
|drink (verb)||boire||tomar; beber||bere||trinken|
|ferment (verb)||travailler||fermentar||fermentare||in Garüng bringen|
|fermentation (noun)||le travail||la fermentación||la fermentazione||der Garüngs-prozeß|
|finish (noun)||un arrière-goût||un postgusto||un retrogusto||der Nachgeschmack|
|flavor (noun)||le goût, la saveur||el sabor||un gusto, un sapore||der Geschmack|
|glass (noun)||un verre||un vaso||un bicchiere||das Glas|
|grape (noun)||un raisin||una uva||un’uva, un chicco d’uva||die Weinbeere|
|grape harvest (noun)||le vendange (la récolte des raisins)||la vendimia (la cosecha de uvas)||la vendemmia (la raccolta dei||die Weinlese|
|label (noun)||une étiquette||una etiqueta||un’etichetta||das Etikett|
|nose (noun)||le bouquet||el buqué||il bouquet||das Bukett, die Blume|
|pour (verb)||verser||echar, escanciar||versare||eingießen, einschenken|
|red wine (noun)||un vin rouge||un vino tinto||un vino rosso||der Rotwein|
|taste wine (verb)||déguster du vin||catar vino||degustare vino||verkosten|
|varietal (noun)||un cépage||una variedad, un vino monovarietal||un varietà di vite||die Weinsorte|
|vine (noun)||une vigne||la vid||una vite||der Weinstock|
|vine growing (noun)||la viticulture||la viticultura||la viticoltura||der Weinbau|
|vineyard (noun)||un vignoble||una viñeda||una vigna, un vogneto||der Weinberg, der Weingarten|
|vintage (noun)||un cru, un vendange||una crianza||un’annata, una produzione||die Weinernte|
|white wine (noun)||un vin blanc||un vino blanco||un vino bianco||der Weisswein|
|wine (noun)||un vin||un vino||un vino||der Wein|
|wine cellar (noun)||une cave||una bodega||una cantina||der Weinkellar|
|wine glass (noun)||un verre à vin||una copa para vino||un bicchiere da vino||das Weinglas|
|wine list (noun)||une carte des vins||una lista des vinos||un elenco dei vini, una list dei vini||die Weinkarte|
|wine steward, wine waiter (noun)||le sommelier||un escanciador||un sommelier||der Weinkellner|
|wine tasting (noun)||une dégustation de vins||una degustación de vinos||una degustazione dei vini||die Weinprobe|
|winemaker (noun)||un vigneron||un viñador, un viñatero||un viticoltore||der Weinbauer, der Weinhändler|
|winery (noun)||une cave de vinification||una bodega||una bottiglieria||die Weinkellerei|
Wine and fermented juices have played a role in civilization for at least 8,000 years. In 2017, Residue containing tartaric acid, a signature of wine, was discovered in a the remains of a clay jar in the country of Georgia, dating to 8,000 years old.
Records by Egyptians give the first written account of grape wine, and date to around 2500 B.C. Egyptians employed much the same method for producing wines as are present today, including cultivating, fermenting, bottling, and storing wines. As with any refined skill that has weathered the years, the knowledge of winemaking has come and gone, its methods have evolved, and the final product has flourished.
Wine usually contains between 10% and 14% alcohol by volume. Dessert and fortified wines usually contain more. In accordance with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tabacco, and Firearms (ATF), a wine must have no more than 14% alcohol, else it is classified as a “high fermentation wine”, a term that applies to most dessert (e.g. Muscat) and fortified wines (e.g. cognac and port).